Diabetes – Types, Symptoms and Risk Factors

Diabetes is one of the most common diseases of modern society. The world is believed to have over 200 million people with diabetes, and diabetes according to the International Federation, this number will reach 350 million by 2025. 



Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by elevated levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The level of blood glucose is controlled by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. The task of insulin is to assist in moving glucose from the blood into cells, where it decomposes and produces energy.

People who suffer from diabetes, regardless of type, have elevated glucose because their body can not transfer glucose into cells. Reasons for this may include:

  • Insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas;
  • Impaired response of cells to insulin;
  • Both reasons simultaneously.


There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes). It is an autoimmune disease with possible genetic predisposition. It occurs at any age, but most commonly in children, teenagers or young adults. In this type of diabetes the pancreas produces little or no insulin is created.
  • Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent). This is the most common form of diabetes. Predominantly affects adults, but in recent years occurs in teenagers and young adults because of excessive gained weight. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas usually produces insulin, but either this amount is not sufficient for the needs of the organism or cells are resistant to insulin.
  • Gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood and occurs in any period of pregnancy in women who had not suffered from diabetes. This condition must be controlled because it can affect the normal growth and development of the baby. Approximately 2-4% of pregnant women are affected by gestational diabetes.